Volume 4, Issue 2, March 2018, Page: 35-42
Impacts of Different Drying Methods on Mold Viability and Ochratoxin A Content of Grape Pomace
Jianmei Yu, Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, U.S.A
Ivy Smith, Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, U.S.A
Bernice Karlton-Senaye, Center of Excellence in Post-Harvest Technologies, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Kannapolis, U.S.A
Nona Mikiashvili, Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, U.S.A
Leonard Williams, Center of Excellence in Post-Harvest Technologies, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Kannapolis, U.S.A
Received: Mar. 9, 2018;       Accepted: Mar. 24, 2018;       Published: May 2, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijaas.20180402.12      View  1179      Downloads  77
Value added utilization of grape pomace (GP) has been the interest of many food researchers due to its high contents in fiber and polyphenols. However, the contamination of GP by molds and ochratoxin A (OTA) present a serious safety issue to food or feed use of GP. To ensure the safety of direct usage of GP as food ingredient, this study investigated the effects of drying method on mold viability and ochratoxin A (OTA) content of GP. Pomaces of seven grape cultivars were dehydrated by freeze, room temperature and vacuum drying methods. The total population of yeast and mold colonies was enumerated using Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC) and Dichloran Glycerol 18% (DG18) media. The OTA was extracted by 70% methanol aqueous solution, and then quantified by an ELISA method. Regardless the grape cultivars, vacuum drying most effectively reduced the viability of mold in GP samples, while freeze-drying was the least effective method. OTA was present in all pomace samples tested but the contents of OTA in GP varied with grape variety. Vacuum drying and freeze drying significantly reduced the OTA contents of most of the pomace samples tested whereas room temperature drying increased OTA contents of all GP samples tested compared with OTA contents measured before drying. Overall, vacuum dry and freeze dry methods resulted in safer GP for food and feed use due to the greater reduction of viable molds and OTA content.
Grape Pomace, Mold, Viability, Ochratoxin A, Drying Method
To cite this article
Jianmei Yu, Ivy Smith, Bernice Karlton-Senaye, Nona Mikiashvili, Leonard Williams, Impacts of Different Drying Methods on Mold Viability and Ochratoxin A Content of Grape Pomace, International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2018, pp. 35-42. doi: 10.11648/j.ijaas.20180402.12
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Karlton-Senaye, B. D., Yu, J., & Williams, L. L. (2015). Morphological and molecular characterization of ochratoxin a producing black Aspergilli from grape pomace. Journal of Food Research, 4, 39-50.
Varga, J., Kocsubé, S., Péteri, Z., Vágvölgyi, C., & Tóth, B. (2010). Chemical, physical and biological approaches to prevent ochratoxin induced toxicoses in humans and animals. Toxins, 2, 1718-1750.
Tamás Kőszegi T., & Poór, M. (2016). Ochratoxin A: Molecular interactions, mechanisms of toxicity and prevention at the molecular level. Toxins, 8, 111-135.
Bui-Klimke, T. R., & Wu, F. (2015). Ochratoxin A and human health risk: a review of the evidence. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55, 1860–1869.
Kolakowski, B., O'rourke, S. M., Bietlot, H. P., Kurz, K., & Aweryn, B. (2016). Ochratoxin A Concentrations in a variety of grain-based and non–grain-based foods on the Canadian retail market from 2009 to 2014. Journal of Food Protection, 79, 2143-2159.
EC 1881, 2006. COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. 2006R1881-EN-01.07.2014-013.001-2.
Health Canada. (2009). Information document on health Canada’s proposed maximum limits (standards) for the presence of the mycotoxin Ochratoxin A in foods. Safety, B. o. C. Ed., Ottawa. www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/consult/ limits-max-seuils/myco_consult_ochra-eng.php.
Yu, J., & Ahmedna, M. (2013). Functional components of grape pomace: Their compositions, biological properties and potential applications. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 18, 221-237.
Hocking, A. D., Leong, S. L., Kazi, B. A., Emmett, R. W., & Scott, E. S. (2007). Fungi and mycotoxins in vineyards and grape products. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 119, 84–88.
Terra, M. F., Prado, G., Pereira, G. E., Ematné H. J., & Batista L. R. (2013). Detection of ochratoxin A in tropical wine and grape juice from Brazil. Journal of Science of Food Agriculture, 93, 890–894.
Ratola, N., Martins, L., & Alves, A. (2004). Ochratoxin A in wine-assessing global uncertainty associated with the results. Analytica Chimica Acta, 513, 319-324.
Fernandes, A., Ratola, N., Cerdeira, A., Alves, A., & Venâncio, A. (2007). Changes in ochratoxin A concentration during winemaking. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 58, 92-96.
Solfrizzo, M., Panzarini, G., &Viscontij, A. (2008). Determination of ochratoxin A in grapes, dried vine fruits, and winery byproducts by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection (HPLC-FLD) and immunoaffinity cleanup. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 11081–11086.
Sánchez-Alonso, I., Jiménez-Escrig, A., Saura-Calixto, F., &Borderías, A. J. (2007). Effect of grape antioxidant dietary fiber on the prevention of lipid oxidation in minced fish: Evaluation by different methodologies. Food Chemistry, 101, 372–378.
Altan, A., McCarthy, K. L., & Maskan, M. (2008). Twin-screw extrusion of barley-grape pomace blends: extrudate characteristics and determination of optimum processing conditions. Journal of Food Engineering, 89, 24–32.
Mildner-Szkudlarz, S., Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R., Szwengiel A., & Pacyński, M. (2011). Use of grape by-product as a source of dietary fibre and phenolic compounds in sourdough mixed rye bread. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 46, 1485–1493.
Özvural, E. B. &Vural, H. (2011). Grape seed flour is a viable ingredient to improve the nutritional profile and reduce lipid oxidation of frankfurters. Meat Science, 88, 179–183.
Smith, I. and Yu, J. (2015). Nutritional and sensory quality of bread containing different cultivars and quantities of grape pomace. EC Nutrition, 2, 291-301.
Khoury, A., & Atoui, A. (2010). Ochratoxin A: General overview and actual molecular status. Toxins, 2, 461-493.
Romani, A., Pinnavaia, G. G., and Rosa, M. D. (2003). Influence of roasting levels on ochratoxin A content in coffee. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 5168-5171.
Pérez de Obanos, A., González-Peñas, E., & López de Cerain, A. (2005). Influence of roasting and brew preparation on the ochratoxin A content in coffee infusion. Food Additives and Contaminants. 22, 463–471.
UC Davis (2014). Diversity of wine yeast. (http://viticulture.ucdavis.edu/industry/enology/winemicro/wineyeast/diversity. html). Retrieved on July 21, 2017.
Zamora, F. (2009). Biochemistry of alcoholic fermentation. In: Wine Chemistry and Biochemistry (M. Victoria Moreno-Arribas M. Carmen Polo Editors). Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, New York, USA.
Bellí, N., Ramos, A. J., Coronas, I., Sanchis, V., & Marín, S. (2005). Aspergillus carbonarius growth and ochratoxin A production on a synthetic grape medium in relation to environmental factors. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 98, 839-44.
Alborch, L. Bragulat, M. R., Abarca M. L., & Cabañes F. J. (2011). Temperature and incubation time effects on growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus sclerotioniger and Aspergillus lacticoffeatus on culture media. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 52, 208–212.
Battilani, P., and Camardo, L. M. (2015). OTA-grapes: a mechanistic model to predict ochratoxin a risk in grapes, a step beyond the systems approach. Toxins 2015, 7, 3012-3029.
Passamani, F. R., Hernandes, T., Lopes, N. A., Bastos, S. C., Santiago, Cardoso, M. D., & Batisa L. R. (2014). Effect of temperature, water activity, and pH on growth and production of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius from Brazilian grapes. Journal of Food Protection, 77, 1947-1952. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X. JFP-13-495.
Mitchell, D., Parra, R., Aldred, D., & Magan, N. (2004). Water and temperature relations of growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus carbonarius strains from grapes in Europe and Israel. Journal of Allied Microbiology, 97, 439-445.
Tassou, C. C., Natskoulis, P. I., Panagou, E. Z., Spiropoulos, A. E., & Magan, N. (2007). Impact of water activity and temperature on growth and ochratoxin A production of two Aspergillus carbonarius isolates from wine grapes in Greece. Journal of Food Protection, 70, 2884-2888.
Tassou, C. C., Natskoulis, P. I., Magan, N., and Panagou, E. Z. (2009). Effect of temperature and water activity on growth and ochratoxin A production boundaries of two Aspergillus carbonarius isolates on a simulated grape juice medium. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 107, 257-268.
Bullerman, L. B., & Bianchini, A. (2007). Stability of mycotoxins during food processing. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 119, 140–146.
Karlovsky, P., Suman, M., Berthiller, F., DeMeester, J., Eisenbrand, G., Perrin, I., Isabelle, P., Oswald, I. P., Speijers, G., Chiodini, A., Recker, T., Dussort, P. (2016). Impact of food processing and detoxification treatmentson mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxin Research, 32, 179–205.
Yu, J. (2014). Thermal stability of major classes of polyphenols in skins, seeds and stems of grape pomace. In “Grapes: Production, Phenolic Composition and Potential Biomedical Effects”, Jose de Sousa Camara (ed), pp: 273-285. Nova Science Publishers Inc. Hauppauge, NY.
Browse journals by subject