Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2018, Page: 60-70
Soil Chemical Characterization and Fertility Status in Selected Irrigation Schemes in Unguja and Pemba Isles, Zanzibar
Halima Mmbaga, Morogoro Zonal Irrigation Office, National Irrigation Commission, Morogoro, Tanzania
Joachim HJR Makoi, Freelance Consultant, Moshi, Tanzania
Received: Jun. 8, 2018;       Accepted: Jun. 27, 2018;       Published: Jul. 30, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijaas.20180403.12      View  521      Downloads  43
A survey was undertaken to assess the soil chemical properties and fertility status in selected irrigation schemes in Unguja and Pemba Isles in October, 2017 during the short rainy seasons. These schemes include Dobi, Kwalempona, Machigini and Ole in Pemba and Bandamaji, Kibonde Mzungu, Koani, Mchangani and Mtwango in Unguja. Soil sampling was done after the soils were grouped into similar pedons following pedogeomorphic approach whereby fifteen and ten mapping units were delineated in Pemba and Unguja respectively. Using zigzag sampling techniques, nineteen composite samples were collected in quadruplicate at a depth of 0 – 30 cm from the delineated pedogeomorphic units at a radius of 20 m around the soil pits. Soil samples were bulked, thoroughly mixed, sub sampled to obtain a representative sample, packed and sent to NSS laboratory for analysis. The results showed significant difference in fertility status in the selected irrigation schemes. The pH was rated as neutral to strongly acid and or very strongly acid. Of the 25 surveyed mapping units (MUs), 47% were rated as medium acid, 26% as strongly acid, 11% as slightly acid and neutral and 5% as very strongly acid. Per cent OC was high in 21%, medium in 63% and low in 16%. In Machigini irrigation scheme, a third of the MUs was rated as having high % OC compared with the two thirds with medium values. Nitrogen was very low in 89% and low in 11% of the surveyed MUs. Whereas that all the surveyed MUs had N below the threshold value (< 2 g kg-1), 84% had low P and 16% has medium levels of available P. CEC values were rated as medium in 32%, high in 16% and very high in 53% of the MUs surveyed. The C:N ratio suggested that SOM was of poor quality in 89% and moderate in 11% of MUs and all the MUs had C/N ratio outside the suggested range. Nutrient balance shows that Ca/Mg ratio in 58% of the MUs was optimal for most crops and 42% was non-optimal. In conclusion, the soil fertility status and overall information from this study could be used in project irrigation design and fertilizer management studies to establish nutrient and drainage requirements for rice and other crops grown in these areas.
Calcium, Cation Exchange Capacity, Fertility Constraints
To cite this article
Halima Mmbaga, Joachim HJR Makoi, Soil Chemical Characterization and Fertility Status in Selected Irrigation Schemes in Unguja and Pemba Isles, Zanzibar, International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2018, pp. 60-70. doi: 10.11648/j.ijaas.20180403.12
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
OCGS (2007). Office of Chief Government Statistician.
FAO and WWC (2015). Towards a Water and Food Secure Future Critical Perspectives for Policy-makers.
Mutiro, J. & J. Lautze (2015). Irrigation in Southern Africa: Success or failure? Irrigation and Drainage 64, 157–298.
Ngailo, J. A., J. M. Wickama, A. S. Nyaki and A. L. Kaswamila (1999). Nutrient flow analysis for selected farming systems in the Northern Tanzania: The case of Mbulu, Moshi Rural and Lushoto Districts (pp 49-64). In: Soil and Nutrient management in sub-Saharan Africa in support of the soil fertility initiative. Pp. 376.
Makoi, J. H. J. R. and P. A. Ndakidemi (2007). Reclamation of sodic soils in northern Tanzania, using locally available organic and inorganic resources. African Journal of Biotechnology. 16(6), 1926 – 1931.
Mokwunye, A. U., de Jager A, and Smaling, E. M. A. (1996). Restoring and maintaining the productivity of West African soils: Key to sustainable development. Misc. fertilizer stud 14, Int. Dev. Central Africa, Lome, Togo.
Sanchez, P. A. (2002). Soil fertility and hunger in Africa. Science. 295, 2019-2020.
Mowo, J. G., B. H. Janssen, O., Oenema L. A., German Mrema, J. P., Shemdoe, R. S. (2006). Soil fertility evaluation and management by smallholder farmer communities in northern Tanzania. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment. 116 (1-2), 47-59.
RLDC (2009). Rural Livelihood Development Company, Rice Sector Strategy: Improving rice profitability through increased productivity and better marketing focusing on Tanzania’s Central Corridor, Pp 34; November.
NSCA (2012). National Sample Census of Agriculture Small Holder Agriculture Volume II: Crop Sector – National Report (2007/2008).
Scoones, I (2001). Dynamics and Diversity: Soil Fertility and Farming Livelihoods in Africa: Case Studies from Ethiopia, Mali, and Zimbambwe, Earthscan Publications Ltd., London, pp 244.
Hellin, J. (2003). From soil erosion to soil quality. LEISA Mag. Low External Input Sustain Agric. 19 (4).
Ndakidemi, P. A., and J. M. R. Semoka (2006). Soil fertility in Western Usambara Mountains, Northern Tanzania. Pedosphere. 16(2), 237-244.
Defoer, T., Budelman, A (Eds.). Managing Soil Fertility in the Tropics. A Resource Guide for Participatory Learning and Action Research. KIT Publishers, Amsterdam; 2000.
Lyamchai, C. J., J. G. Mowo, J. M. Wickama (2004). Managing new working relationships: partnership and networking. In: AHI Regional Conference, Nairobi.
Ouédraogo, E. (2004). Soil quality improvement for crop production in semi-arid West Africa. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen.
Saϊdou, A., T. W. Kuyper, D. K. Kossou, R. Tossou, P. Richards (2004). Sustainable soil fertility management in Benin: learning from farmers. NJAS-Wageningen. Journal of Life Sciences. 52, 349-369.
Monreal, C. M., H. Dinel, M. Schnitzer, D. S. Gamble, V. O. Biederbeck (1997). Impact of carbon sequestration on functional indicators of soil quality as influenced by management in sustainable agriculture. P. 435-457. In: Lal R et al. (eds.) Soil processes and the carbon cycle, Lewis Publ., CRC Press, Roca balton, FL.
Brady, N. C., R. R. Weil (2002). Nature and Properties of Soils. 13th Edition. With permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Muchena, F. M. and R. M. Kiome (1995). The role of soil science in agricultural development in East Africa. Geoderma. 67; 141-157.
Makoi J. H. J. R (2003). Soil Fertility assessment for irrigation in the selected schemes of Mbulu District. In: United Republic of Tanzania, Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, Participatory Irrigation Development Programme. ZITS, Moshi, Kilimanjaro.
Day, P. R. (1965). Particle fraction and particle size analysis. In: Black CA et al. (Eds). Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. American Society of Agronomy, Madison. Pp. 545-567.
United State Department of Agriculture, (1975). Soil Taxonomy. A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. Agricultural Handbook No. 436. Washington D. C. pp. 754.
Allison, E (1965). Organic carbom. In: Black CA et al. (eds). Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. American Society of Agronomy, Madison. Pp. 1367-1378.
Walkley, A., A. Black (1934). Determination of organic matter. Soil Sci. 37:29-38.
Peech, M. (1965). Hydrogen ion activity. In: Black CA et al. (Eds). Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. American Society of Agronomy, Madison. Pp. 914-926.
Bremner, J. M. (1965). Total nitrogen. In: Black CA et al. (eds). Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. American Society of Agronomy, Madison. Pp. 1149-1178.
Chapman, H. D. (1965). Cation exchange capacity. In: Black CA et al. (Eds). Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. American Society of Agronomy, Madison. Pp. 891-901.
Polemio, M. J. D. Rhoades (1977). Determining cation exchange capacity: A new procedure for calcareous and gypsiferous soils. Soil Science Society of American Journal. 41, 524-528.
Hesse, P. R. (1971). A Text Book of Soil Chemistry Analysis. John Murray Ltd. London. Pp. 120-309.
Piper, C. S. (1942). Soil and Plant Analysis. University of Adelaide.
Rodriguez, J. B., J. R. Self and N. P. Soltanpour (1994). Optimal conditions for phosphorous analysis by the ascorbic acid-molybdenum blue method. Soil Science Society of American Journal. 58, 866-870.
Murphy, J., and J. P. Riley. (1962). A modified single solution method for determination of phosphates in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta. 27, 31-36.
Page, A. L., R. H., Miller, D. R. Keeney eds. (1982). Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2: Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd ed.: American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.
Steel, R. G. D., J. H. Torrie (1980). Principles and procedures of statistics: A biometrical approach, Second Edition. McGraw Hill, New York.
NSS (1990). Laboratory procedures for routine soil analysis, 3rd ed. Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, National Soil Service (NSS), ARI, Mlingano.
Foy, C. D. (1992). Soil chemical factors limiting plant root growth. Adv Soil Sci. 19:97-131.
Elisa, A. A., J. Shamshuddin, CI. Fauziah (2011). Root elongation, root surface area and organic acid exudation by rice seedling under Al3+ and/or H+ stress. Amer J Agric Bio Sci. 6: 324-331.
Prasad, R and J. F. Power (1997). Soil Fertility Management for Sustainable Agriculture. Lewis Publishers, New York, NY. 356 pp.
Loveland, P., J. Webb (2003). Is there a critical level of organic matter in the agricultural soils of temperate regions: a review. Soil and Tillage Research, 70: 1–18.
Makoi J. H. J. R., P. A. Ndakidemi (2008). Selected soil enzymes: examples of their potential roles in the ecosystem. African Journal of Biotechnology 7; 181-191.
Vermeer, J. G., F. Berendse (1983). The relationship between nutrient availability, shoot biomass and species richness in grassland and wetland communities. Vegetation. 53; 121-126.
Tilman, G. D. (1984). Plant dominance along an experimental nutrient gradient. Ecol. 65; 1445-1453.
Facelli, J. M., S. T. A. Pickett (1991). Plant litter. Its dynamics and effects on plant community structure. Bot Rev. 57:1-32.
Marx, E. S., J. M. Hart & R. G. Stevens (1996). Soil test interpretation guide. Oregon State University Extension Service Oregon, USA.
Smiciklas, K. D., R. E. Mullen, R. E. Carlson, A. D. Knapp (1989). Drought-induced stress effect on soybean seed calcium and quality. Crop Science 29; 1519-1523.
Schwartz, H. F., M. A. Coralles (1989). Nutritional disorders in beans. In: Schwartz HF, Coralles MAP (Eds.) Bean production Problems in the tropics. Second edition. International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali. Pp. 75-604.
Anderson, G. D. (1973). Potassium responses of various crops in East Africa. In: Proceedings of the 10th Colloquium of the International Potash Potash Insititute, Abijan, Ivory Coast. International Potash Insititute, Abijan. Pp. 413-437.
Peverill, K. I., L. A. Sparrow and D. J. Reuter (1999). Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual CSIRO, Collingwood, Australia, pp. 170- 174.
Lebron, I., D. L. Suarez, T. Yoshida (2002). Gypsum effect on the aggregate size and geometry of three sodic soils under reclamation. Soil Science Society of American Journal 66; 92-98.
Browse journals by subject