Volume 5, Issue 2, March 2019, Page: 45-49
Effect of Biofertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat (Triticum aestivum. L) Under Iraqi Conditions
Hadwan Hamid Ali, Directorate of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Irap
Francis Araha Janno, Directorate of Agr-Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Irap
Rafal Esmael Majed, Directorate of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Irap
Muntaser Mansor Hamza, Directorate of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Irap
Received: Nov. 29, 2018;       Accepted: Feb. 1, 2019;       Published: May 15, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijaas.20190502.13      View  48      Downloads  27
Abstract
The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of biofertilizers in improving wheat yield, yield components, and nutrients balance in soil. Local and imported biofertilizers were applied in a field experiment at Erbil, Iraq for the season 2016-2017. The experimental design was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. The experiment consisted of five treatments: T1 = Natrusoil (Commercial Biofertilizer) only, T2 = Natrusoil + 25% Chemical Fertilizers (CF), T3 = Local Biofertilizer B1 + 25%CF, T4 = Local Biofertilizers B2 + 25%CF, and T5 = CF as a Control (Recommended: Urea = 260 kg/ha, DAP = 180 kg/ha). Management practices in soil preparation and crop management followed the common and general procedures. Most test biofertilizers significantly increased yield of wheat grain or yield components. Maximum significant grain yield was obtained from biofertilizers treatments Natrusoil+25%CF (4.659) and B1+25%CF (4.691) as compared with the Control (3.987 kg ha-1). The increase in yield was in the range 17-18%. The application of biofertilizer resulted in a positive effect on nutrients balance in the soil at the end of season regardless of type of biofertilizrs as indicated by the increase in levels of NH4, NO3, P, and K. Among the benefits of using bioferilizers is the reduction in cost. The reduction was 47% in using the imported Natrusoil + 25%CF increased to 72% when using the Natrusoil alone.
Keywords
Biofertilizers, Bacteria, Fungi, Wheat, Yield, Mineral Fertilizers and Financial Cost
To cite this article
Hadwan Hamid Ali, Francis Araha Janno, Rafal Esmael Majed, Muntaser Mansor Hamza, Effect of Biofertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat (Triticum aestivum. L) Under Iraqi Conditions, International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2019, pp. 45-49. doi: 10.11648/j.ijaas.20190502.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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