Volume 6, Issue 5, September 2020, Page: 96-117
Soil Fertility Status in Bukoba, Missenyi and Biharamulo Districts in Kagera Region, Tanzania
Mgeta Steven Merumba, Department of Soil and Geological Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; Maruku Research Centre, Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), Bukoba, Tanzania
Ernest Semu, Department of Soil and Geological Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
Johnson Mashambo Semoka, Department of Soil and Geological Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
Balthazar Michael Msanya, Department of Soil and Geological Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
Received: Sep. 5, 2020;       Accepted: Sep. 17, 2020;       Published: Sep. 23, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijaas.20200605.12      View  57      Downloads  62
Abstract
The study was conducted in three Districts of Kagera Region, Tanzania to assess the inherent soil fertility status of farmers' fields. Thirty-three fields, located three to five km apart, were selected and soil samples (0 – 20 cm depth) were taken, mixed thoroughly, air-dried, ground, sieved through 2 mm sieve, and analyzed in the soil laboratory based on standard laboratory analytical procedures. Correlation analyses among soil chemical properties were performed using IBM SPSS Statistic 20 and the mean values were calculated using Excel spreadsheet statistical package. Soil fertility index (SFI) and limiting nutrients were used to assess the fertility status of the fields. The results indicated that soil textures ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy clay, clay loam, clay to sandy. Soil pH ranged from strongly acid (5.1) to slightly acid (6.1) while EC levels were very low (0.03 - 0.17 dS m-1). Total TN ranged from very low to medium (0.04 - 0.41%), extractable P ranged from low to high (0.44 - 86.44 mg kg-1) and Exchangeable K ranged from very low to medium (0.08 - 0.98 cmol(+) kg-1). Exchangeable S ranged from low to medium (2.27 - 12.14 mg kg-1) while CEC ranged from very low to medium (5.20 - 23.00 cmol(+) kg-1), extractable Zn ranged from medium to high (0.85 - 18.41 mg kg-1), Cu from medium to high (0.47 - 2.81 mg kg-1), and Mn and Fe were medium (2.24 - 70.34 mg kg-1) and high (37.50 - 473.21 mg kg-1), respectively. The results also indicated both positive (r=+ve) and negative (r=-ve) and both significantly (p≤0.05) and highly significantly (p≤0.01) correlations among the soil chemical properties in each districts. Based on SFI, the soil fertility status of the studied fields ranged from poor fertility to good fertility. The results on the limiting nutrients across the studied fields indicated that N and K were the most limiting nutrients (67%) followed by P (52%), S (32%), Mg and OC (18%) and the least was Ca (15%). The results also indicated that N and P were the most limiting nutrients in Bukoba District while N and S were the most limiting nutrients in Missenyi District and N, P and K were the most limiting nutrients in Biharamulo District. Therefore, specific soil fertility management practices are recommended based on limiting nutrients in those fields having inadequate levels of plant nutrients together with training of farmers on proper use of the appropriate soil fertility management practices.
Keywords
Soil Fertility Status, Soil Fertility Index, Physical and Chemical Properties, Soil Fertility Management, Limiting Nutrient (s), Kagera Region
To cite this article
Mgeta Steven Merumba, Ernest Semu, Johnson Mashambo Semoka, Balthazar Michael Msanya, Soil Fertility Status in Bukoba, Missenyi and Biharamulo Districts in Kagera Region, Tanzania, International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 5, 2020, pp. 96-117. doi: 10.11648/j.ijaas.20200605.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Ogunjinmi, O. F., Kolawole G. O. and Oyeyiola, Y. (2017). Soil fertility assessment and determination of potential ameliorants for an Alfisol under long-term continuous cultivation in southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, 8 (9): 155-163.
[2]
Odoemena, B., Eric, E., Paul, O., Geraldine, U., Damian, I., Augustine, O. and Francis, O. (2010). Econometric analysis of the micro-level determinants of woodland conversion to arable cropping and implications to policy. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5 (11): 1168-1178.
[3]
Sanginga, N. and Woomer, P. L. (eds.) (2009). Integrated Soil Fertility Management in Africa: Principles, Practices and Development Process. Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute of the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture. Nairobi, Kenya. 263 pp.
[4]
Zingore, S. (2011). Maize productivity and response to fertilizer use as affected by soil fertility variability, manure application and cropping system. Better Crops, 95 (1): 4-6.
[5]
Khadka, D., Lamichhane, S., Amgain, R., Joshi, S., Vista, S. P., Sah, K., and Ghimire, N. H. (2019). Soil fertility assessment and mapping spatial distribution of Agricultural Research Station, Bijayanagar, Jumla, Nepal. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8 (3): 237-248.
[6]
Kangalawe, R. Y. M. (2012). Land Degradation, Community Perceptions and Environmental Management Implications in the Drylands of Central Tanzania. In: Sustainable Development: authoritative and leading edge content for environmental management. Curkovic, S. (Ed). IntechOpen, London, United Kingdom (UK). pp. 539-560.
[7]
Tanimu, J., Uyovbisere, E. O., Lyocks, S. W. J. and Tanimu, Y. (2013). Effects of cowdung on the growth and development of maize crop. Greener Journal of Agricultural Science, 3 (5): 371-383.
[8]
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2000). Fertilizers and their use. In: International Fertilizer Industry Association. 4th Edition. Rome, Italy. 70 pp.
[9]
United Republic of Tanzania (URT) (2012). National Sample Census of Agriculture 2007/2008, Stallholder Agriculture, Volume II, Crop Sector-National Report. National Bureau of Statistic. 417 pp.
[10]
Nkuba, J., Mushongi, C. C., Merumba, M. S. and Ndyetabula, I. (2011). Baseline Study in Bukoba, Missenyi, Muleba and Biharamulo Survey Report. Maruku Agricultural Research Institute, Bukoba, Tanzania. 68 pp.
[11]
Kapinga, R. Mafuru, J. Simon, J. Rwiza, E. Kamala, R. Mashamba, F. and Mlingi, N. (2005). Status of Cassava in Tanzania: Implications for future research and development. Kapinga et al. (Eds). Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative, United Republic of Tanzania. 93 pp.
[12]
Peter, D. (2012). Effects of intercropping cassava with some legumes on cassava growth performance, fertility improvement and whitefly control. Thesis for award of PhD Degree at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. 229 pp.
[13]
Baijukya, F. P. and Folmer, E. C. R. (1999). Agro-Ecological Zonation of the Kagera region. In: Planning the Future: Past, Present and Future Perspectives of Land Use in Kagera Region. Folmer, E. C. R., Schouten, C. and Baijukya, F. P. (Eds). Bukoba, Kagera, Tanzania. pp. 28-39.
[14]
Flores-Magdaleno, H., Mancilla-Villa, O. R., Mejia-Saenz, E., Olmedo-Bolantilde, M. D. C. and Bautista-Olivas, A. L. (2011). Heavy metals in agricultural soils and irrigation wastewater of Mixquiahuala, Hidalgo, Mexico. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6 (24): 5505-5511.
[15]
Rakesh, K., Rakesh, K. U. S. and Brijesh, Y. (2012). Vertical distribution of physico-chemical properties under different toposequence in soils of Jharkhand. Journal of Agricultural Physics, 12 (1): 63-69.
[16]
Khadka, D., Lamichhane, S., Shrestha, S. R., and Pant, B. B. (2017). Evaluation of soil fertility status of regional agricultural Research Station, Tarahara, Sunsari, Nepal. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6 (4): 295-306.
[17]
Brady, N. C. and Weil, R. R. (2017). The nature and properties of soil. 15th Edition. Pearson Education. Essex, England. 1104 pp.
[18]
Havlin, H. L., Beaton, J. D., Tisdale, S. L. and Nelson, W. L. (2010). Soil Fertility and Fertilizers: An Introduction to Nutrient Management. 7th Edition. PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi. India. 516 pp.
[19]
United Republic of Tanzania (URT) (2019). Kagera Region Investment Guide-2019. Kagera Regional Commissioner Office, Kagera, Tanzania. 92 pp.
[20]
Merumba, M. S., Msanya, B. M., Semu, E., Semoka, J. M. (2020). Pedological characterization and suitability assessment for cassava production in Bukoba, Missenyi and Diharamulo Districts, Tanzania. American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 8 (4): 144-166.
[21]
Oosterom, A. P., Ngailo, J. A., Kileo, R. O., Mbogoni, J. D. J., Msangi, A. S., Andriesse, W. and Van Kekem, A. J. (1999). Land Resources of Biharamulo District, Kagera region, Tanzania, International Activities Report 75. Winand Staring Centre, Wageningen. The Netherlands. 160 pp.
[22]
Baijukya, F. P. (2004). Adapting to change in banana-based farming systems of Northwest Tanzania: The potential role of herbaceous legume. Thesis for the ward a PhD Degree at the Wageningen University. Wageningen. The Netherland. 192 pp.
[23]
Day, P. R (1965). Particle fractionation and particle size analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1. Black, C. A., Evans, D. D., White, J. L., Ensminger, L. E. and Clark, F. E. (Eds), American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin. pp. 545-566.
[24]
Moberg, J. R. (2001). Soil and Plant Analysis Manual. Revised Edition. The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Chemistry Department, Copenhagen, Denmark. 137 pp.
[25]
Soil Survey Staff (2014). Key to Soil Taxonomy. 12th Edition. Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Handbook, Washington DC. 372 pp.
[26]
Okalebo, J. R., Gathua, K. W and Woomer, P. L. (2002). Laboratory methods of soil and plant analysis: A working manual. 2nd Edition. TSBF-CIAT and SACRED Africa, Nairobi. 127 pp.
[27]
Nelson, D. W. and Sommers L. E. (1982). Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. II. Chemical and Microbiological properties. Second Edition. Page, A. L., Miller, R. H., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D. E., Roscoe E., Ellis, J. and Rhodes, J. D. (Eds). Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 539-581.
[28]
Duursma, E. K. and Dawson, R. (eds) (1981). Marine organic chemistry: Evolution, composition, interactions and chemistry of organic matter in seawater. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 521 pp.
[29]
Bremner, J. M. and Mulvaney, C. S. (1982). Total nitrogen. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2 Black et al. (Eds) Agronomy Monograph 9, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 1149-1170.
[30]
Bray, R. H. and Kurtz, L. T. (1945). Determination of total organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science, 59: 39-45.
[31]
Murphy, J. and Riley, J. P. (1962). Modified single solution method for determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta, 27: 31-36.
[32]
Chapman, H. D. (1965). Cation exchange capacity. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1. Black, C. A., Evans, D. D., White, J. L., Ensminger, L. E. and Clark, F. E. (Eds), American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin. pp. 891-901.
[33]
Thomas, G. W. (1986). Exchangeable cations. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. 2nd Edition. Page, A. L., Miller, R. H., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D. E., Roscoe E., Ellis, J. and Rhodes, J. D. (Eds). Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 403-430.
[34]
Van Ranst, E., Nerloo, M., Demeyer, A. and Pauwels, J. M. (1999). Manual for the soil Chemistry and Fertilizer Laboratory. Analytical Methods for soils and Plants Equipment and Management of Consumable. International Training Centre for Post-Gradutes Soil Scientists and Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry. Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Eco-chemistry, University of Ghent. 243 pp.
[35]
Lindsay W. L. and Norvell W. A. (1978): Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42: 421–428.
[36]
Landon, J. R. (1991). Booker Tropical Soil Manual. A handbook for soil survey and agricultural land evaluation in the tropics and subtropics, Longman Scientific and Technical Publishers, Essex. 474 pp.
[37]
Saglam, M. and Dengiz, O. (2014). Distribution and evaluation of soil fertility based on geostatistical approach in Bafra Deltaic Plain. Turkish Journal of Agricultural Research 1 (2): 186-195.
[38]
Moran, E. F., Brondizion, E. S., Tucker, J. M., Da SilvaForsberg, M. C., McCracken, S. and Falesi, I. 2000. Effects of soil fertility and land use on forest succession in Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management, 139: 93-108.
[39]
Lu, D., Moran, E. and Mausel, P. 2002. Linking Amazonian secondary succession forest growth to soil properties. Land Degradation and Development 13: 331-343.
[40]
Costantini, E. A., Angelone, M. and Damiani, D. (2002). Physical, geochemical and mineralogical indicators of aging in Quaternary soils of Central Italy. In: 17th World Congress of Soil Science, Transactions. International Union of Soil Sciences, 599: 1-9.
[41]
EuroConsult (1989). Agricultural Compendium for Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 3rd Edition. Elsevier Science Publishers. Amsterdam, The Netherland. 740 pp.
[42]
National Soil Service (NSS) (1990). Laboratory procedures for routine analysis, 3rd Edition. Agricultural Research Institute, Mlingano Tanga, Tanzania. 212 pp.
[43]
Baize, D. (1993). Soil Science Analyses. A Guide to Current Use. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. West Sussex. 192 pp.
[44]
Msanya, B. M., Kimaro, D. N., Kimbi, G. G., Kileo, E. P. and Mbogoni, J. D. J. (2001). Land resources inventory and suitability assessment for the major land use types in Morogoro Urban District, Tanzania: Soils and Land Resources of Morogoro Rural and Urban, Volume 4. Department of Soil Science, SUA, Morogoro, Tanzania. pp. 1-66.
[45]
Kebeney, S. J., Msanya, B. M., Ng’etich, W. K., Semoka, J. M. and Serrem, C. K. (2014). Pedological characterization of some typical soils of Busia County, Western Kenya: Soil morphology, physico-chemical properties, classification and fertility trends. International Journal of Plant and Soil Science, 4 (1): 29-44.
[46]
Jones Jr, J. B. (2001). Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analysis. CRC Press LCC, Boca Raton, New York, Washington, D.C. 363 pp.
[47]
Horneck, D. D., Sullivan, D. M., Owen, J. S. and Hart, J. M. (2011). Soil Test Interpretation Guide. Extension services, Oregon State University. 12 pp.
[48]
Ndakidemi P. A. and Semoka J. M. R. (2006). Soil Fertility Survey in Western Usambara Mountains, Northern Tanzania. Pedosphere 16 (2): 237-244.
[49]
Hazelton, P. and Murphy, B. (2016). Interpreting Soil Test Research: What do all the number mean? 3rd Edition. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Publishing. Clayton South, Australia. 186 pp.
[50]
Ge, S., Xu, H., Ji, M. and Jiang, Y. (2013). Characteristics of Soil Organic Carbon, Total Nitrogen, and C/N Ratio in Chinese Apple Orchards. Open Journal of Soil Science, 3: 213-217.
[51]
Touber, L. and Kanani, J. R. (1994). Landforms and soils of Bukoba District. Bukoba District Rural Development Programme. NEDWORC, Networking in Development, The Netherland. 145 pp.
[52]
Tabi, F. O., Ngobesing, E. S. C., Yinda, G. S., Boukong, A., Omoko, M., Bitondo, D. and Mvondo Ze, A. D. (2013). Soil fertility capability classification (FCC) for rice production in Cameroon lowlands. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8 (119): 1650-1665.
[53]
Tenga, J. J., Semoka, J. M. and Msanya, B. M. (2018). Assessment of soil fertility status for Bambara Groundnut Production in South-eastern Tanzania. International Journal of Plant and Soil Science, 24 (3): 1-13.
[54]
Barker, A. V. and Pilbeam D. J. (2007). Handbook of plant nutrition. Taylor and Francis, London, New York. 662 pp.
[55]
Mengel K (2007) Potassium. In: Handbook of plant nutrition. Barker, A. V., Pilbeam, D. J (Eds). Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Ratan, New York, USA. pp. 91–120.
[56]
Zlatev, Z., and Lidon, F. C. (2012). An overview on drought induced changes in plant growth, water relations and photosynthesis. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 24 (1): 57-72.
[57]
Tripathi, D. K., Singh, V. P., Chauhan, D. K., Prasad, S. M., and Dubey, N. K. (2014). Role of macronutrients in plant growth and acclimation: recent advances and future prospective. In: Improvement of crops in the era of climatic changes. P. Ahmad et al. (Eds.). Springer, New York, USA. pp. 197-216.
[58]
Wiyantoko, B., and Rahmah, N. (2017). Measurement of cation exchange capacity (CEC) on natural zeolite by percolation method. In: AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1911, 020021, No. 1, AIP Publishing LLC. Doi: 10.1063/1.5016014.
[59]
Food Agricultural Organization (FAO) (2006). Guidelines for Soil Description. 4th Edition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 66 pp.
[60]
Karuma, A. N., Gachene, C. K. K., Msanya, B. M., Mtakwa, P. W., Amuri N. and Gicheru, P. T. (2015). Soil Morphology, Physico-Chemical Properties and Classification of Typical Soils of Mwala District, Kenya. International Journal of Plant and Soil Science, 4 (2): 156-170.
[61]
Esu, I. E. (1991). Detailed soil survey of National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT) Farm at Bunkure, Kano State, Nigeria. Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmad Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 72 pp.
[62]
Motsara, M. R., and Roy, R. N. (2008). Guide to laboratory establishment for plant nutrient analysis, Vol. 19. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 219 pp.
[63]
Mustapha, S., Mamman, H. K. and Abdulhamid, N. A. (2010). Status and distribution of extractable micronutrients in Haplustults in Yamaltu-Deba Local Government Area, Gombe state, Nigeria. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, 1 (8): 200-204.
[64]
Dos-Santos, G. C. G., Valladares, G. S., Abreu, C. A., de Camargo, O. A., and Grego, C. R. (2013). Assessment of copper and zinc in soils of a vineyard region in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. In: Applied and Environmental Soil Science. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 10 pp.
[65]
Sillanpää, M. (1982). Micronutrients and the nutrient status of soils: A global study, FAO soils bulletin no 48, FAO. Rome, Italy. pp. 17-97.
[66]
Foy, C. D., Chaney, R. L., and White, M. C. (1978). The physiology of metal toxicity in plants. Annual. Review of. Plant Physiology, 29: 511-566.
[67]
Deb, D. L. and Sakal, R. (2002). Micronutrients. In: Indian Society of Soil Science. Indian Research Institute, New Delhi. pp. 391-403.
[68]
Edem, S. O. and Ndaeyo, N. U. (2009). Fertility status and management implications of wetland soils for sustainable crop production in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 11 (2): 393-406.
[69]
Yilmaz, K., Çelik, I., Kapur, S. and Ryan, J. (2005). Clay minerals, Ca/Mg ratio and Fe-Al-oxides in relation to structural stability, hydraulic conductivity and soil erosion in southeastern Turkey. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 29 (1): 29-37.
[70]
Ch’ng, H. Y., Ahmed, O. H. and Majid, N. M. (2014). Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agro-industrial wastes. The Scientific World Journal, 2014: 1-6.
[71]
Abreu Jr., C. H., Muraoka, T. and Lavorante, A. F. (2003). Relationship between acidity and chemical properties of Brazilian soils. Scientia Agricola, 60 (2): 337-343.
[72]
Azlan, A., Weng E. R., Ibrahim. C. O. and Noorhaidah, A. (2012). Correlation between soil Organic carbon, total organic matter and water content with climate and depths of soil at different land use in Kelantan, Malaysia. Journal of Applied Science in Environmental Management, 16 (4): 353-358.
[73]
Cao, L., Liu, H. and Zhao, S. (2012). Relationship between carbon and nitrogen in degraded alpine meadow soil. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7 (27): 3945-3951.
[74]
Aizat, A. M., Roslan, M. K., Sulaiman, W. N. A., and Karam, D. S. (2014). The relationship between soil pH and selected soil properties in 48 years logged-over forest. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 4 (6): 1129-1140.
[75]
Harold, F. R. J., Patrick, H. and Tom, W. B. (2015). The 4R nutrient stewardship: A global framework for sustainable fertilizer management. In: Managing Water and Fertilizer for Sustainable Agricultural Intensification. Drechsel, P., Heffer, P., Magen, H., Mikkelsen, R. and Wichelns, D. (Eds.). 1st Edition. International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA), International Water Management Institute (IWMI), International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI), International Potash Institute (IPI). Paris, France. pp. 65-86.
Browse journals by subject